Cotton fiber | Advantages and disadvantages of cotton

Cotton fiber

Cotton fiber

Cotton fiber is a soft, fluffy staple fiber that grows in a ball or protective case, around the seeds of the cotton plant of the genus Gossypium of the Mallow family Malvaceae. The fiber is almost pure cellulose and may contain a small percentage of wax, fat, pectin, and water. Under natural conditions, cotton balls will increase seed dispersal. Fiber is often spun into thread or yarn and used to create a soft, breathable, and durable textile. The use of cotton for cloth has been known since prehistoric times; Pieces of cotton cloth dating to the 5th millennium BC have been found in the Indus Valley Civilization, as well as remnants of 6000 BC cloth in Peru. Although cultivated since ancient times, it was the invention of the cotton gin that reduced production costs that led to its widespread use, and is the most widely used natural fiber fabric in clothing today.

Cotton fiber properties

i. Cotton fiber moisture regains 8%

ii. Cellulose is arranged in such a way that it gives cotton the unique properties of strength, durability, and absorption

iii. It is fresh, crisp, comfortable, absorbent, flexible, has no peeling problem, and is well resistant to alkali

iv. It has poor wrinkle resistance, shrinkage, weak acid resistance, low abrasion resistance, susceptibility to damage by insects and cracks, requires lots of maintenance, and is hard to remove stains.

v. Its fiber length ranges from 0.5 inches to 2 inches

vi. When wet, its strength increases by 10%.

vii. It has the shape of a flat-rolled tube

viii. It can hold water 24–27 times their own weight

ix. It is strong, dye absorbent, and can stand up against abrasion wear and high temperature

x. It can be blended with other fibers such as nylon, linen, wool, and polyester, to achieve the best properties of each fiber.

Cotton fiber production process

i. Cultivation

Most of the farming is done in spring. The soil is made by removing the residue of the previous crop cultivated in the soil. This is done by cutting the stalks and inverting them on the ground or placing them on the ground to protect them from erosion. In spring, the soil is sown with the help of special machines, some of which make lines for planting seeds, others plant the seeds on flat land because cotton requires high-fertility soil, so farmers add a lot of fertilizer. Seeds, or near them, pesticides may be added during soil preparation, or during cotton cultivation.

ii. Cotton fiber harvesting

The first step in cotton processing is harvesting and it is an important process for farmers. This is the most important step before the completion of a few months of planting and care, and before its identification journey begins from the cotton gin to the mill. After the crop matures, the harvest begins. Early harvesting can disrupt maturation, negatively affecting fiber quality while waiting too long can lead to reduced fiber yield.

iii. Cotton ginning process

After the cotton is harvested, it is bale-pressed and sent to the cotton gin so that the main part can be separated from the seed. In the ginning process, the cotton goes through a group of cylinders working with centrifugal force, some of which is used to dry the cotton from moisture, others to clean the cotton from dust and strange substances, and then the cotton is pressed into the bell. Will be transferred to a spinning, and weaving factory then to a dyeing and printing factory. Seeds are sent to contemporaries to extract oil from them.

iv. Spinning

In the spinning process, the spinning machines take the cotton fiber from the silver and rotate it up to 2500 revolutions in a second twist which turns the fibers into yarn for weaving. Mills spin and twist the roving and place it on the bobbin. Using automatic windings, the yarn bobbins are transferred to a larger bobbin called a cheese cone.

Cotton fiber Advantages

i. Cotton fiber is more comfortable than other fibers.

ii. It is naturally sustainable fiber.

iii. It supports farmers and communities.

iv. You sleep better with cotton products.

v. It is hypoallergenic.

vi. It is odor-free.

vii. It is low maintenance.

viii. It isn't clingy.

ix. It is versatile and inexpensive fiber

x. It is high-tech

xi. It is naturally absorbent and doesn't show perspiration like synthetics

xii. It is easily biodegradable.

xiii. It is solid, strong, durable, and resists scraped spot

Cotton fiber Disadvantages

i. Cotton fiber fabric is not a very strong fabric.

ii. It is heavy and takes a long time to dry, also stains easily.

iii. It contains poor elasticity so creases badly.

iv. It shrinks badly.

v. It is highly flammable and burns quickly.

vi. It is attacked by mildew if left damp.

vii. Its color fades away easily

viii. Its durability is low compared to synthetic fibers


Cotton fiber is one of the most important raw materials in the textile industry and is also a renewable natural resource. For this reason, cotton is widely grown in the world. The growth and development stages of cotton consist of stages of emergence, seedling, square, flowering, boll-setting, and boll-opening, which last a total of 180-200 days. Cotton yield is formed through fruits. The basic components of lint yield are the number of bolls per unit of land, weight per boll, and lint percentage. The quality of cotton fiber can be mainly determined by the length of the fiber, the strength of the fiber, and the fineness of the fiber. A wide range of factors such as environment, planting methods, agronomic systems, and harvesting control every developmental process of the cotton plant, both vegetative and reproductive growth, and also affect the yield and quality of cotton fiber. Thus, in order to achieve maximum yield and quality of cotton fiber, an appropriate combination of genotype, environmental conditions and cultural practices like light and simplified culture should be adopted.


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